Investigación y Estudios del Cigarrillo Electrónico

Este es un listado de los estudios más conocidos sobre los cigarrillos electrónicos. Son casi 60 documentos entre estudios clínicos hechos en humanos, investigación de laboratorio, reportes de laboratorio y opiniones científicas.

La investigación incluye aspectos que tienen que ver con la efectividad del cigarrillo electrónico para dejar de fumar, los componentes del líquido, los riesgos que podría conllevar usarlos, análisis del vapor y de cómo podría afectar a los "consumidores" pasivos, entre muchas otras cosas muy interesantes.

Estos documentos abarcan aspectos que van desde los reportes de estudios de laboratorio hechos a varios líquidos para vapear, hasta análisis del vapor generado por las máquinas de "humo" artificial utilizadas en el área del entretenimiento y producciones teatrales, además, incluyen estudios sobre la calidad del aire en ambientes cerrados donde se ha vapeado.

Cabe señalar que uno de los principales argumentos de las personas, grupos e instituciones que se oponen a la utilización, comercialización, producción o distribución de los cigarrillos electrónicos, es que no existe investigación sobre estos, sin embargo, aunque hace falta más investigación, no es acertado argumentar que no sabemos nada del vapeo.

En general, toda esta investigación sugiere que vapear implica mucho menos riesgo que fumar y que las personas alrededor de un vapeador no se ven afectadas por el vapor, dos puntos claves para acallar las voces en contra del vapeo.

Investigación Clínica

Burstyn, I, Peering through the mist: What does the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tell us about health risks?, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health School of Public Health Drexel University, 2013 July-Aug.

Bullen C, C, McRobbie H, Thornley S, Glover M, Lin R, Laugesen M. Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial. Tob Control. 2010 Apr;19(2):98-103.

Caponnetto P, Polosa R, Auditore R, Russo C, Campagna D. Smoking Cessation with E-Cigarettes in Smokers with a Documented History of Depression and Recurring Relapses. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2011, 2, 281-284.

Caponnetto P, Cibella F, Mancuso S, Campagna D, Arcidiacono G, Polosa R. Effect of a nicotine free inhalator as part of a smoking cessation program. Eur Respir J. 2011 May 12.

Caponnetto P, Keller E, Bruno CM, Polosa R. Handling relapse in smoking cessation: strategies and recommendations. Intern Emerg Med. 2012 Oct 7.

Caponnetto P, Auditore R, Russo C, Cappello GC, Polosa R. Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Jan 28;10(2):446-61. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10020446.

Darredeau C, Campbell M, Temporale K, et al. Subjective and reinforcing effects of electronic cigarettes in male and female smokers. 12th annual meeting of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Europe. Bath, UK, 2010.

Dawkins L, Turner J, Hasna S, Soar K. The electronic-cigarette: Effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition. Addict Behav. 2012 Aug;37(8):970-3.

Eissenberg T. Electronic nicotine delivery devices: ineffective nicotine delivery and craving suppression after acute administration. Tob Control. 2010 Feb;19(1):87-8.

Flouris, Andreas D.; Poulianiti, Konstantina P.; Chorti, Maria S.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O.; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Koutedakis, Yiannis. Acute Effects of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarette Smoking on Complete Blood Count. Food and Chemical Toxicology (in press). Available online 30 July 2012.

Goniewicz ML, Gawron M, Peng M, et al. Electronic cigarettes deliver similar levels of nicotine and reduce exposure to combustion toxicants after switching from tobacco cigarettes. Society for Research on Nicotineand Tobacco 18th Annual Meeting. Houston, Texas, USA, 2012. Page 40:

Miura K, Kikukawa Y, Nakao T, Tokai H, Izumi Y, Fujii H, Hojo, T. Safety Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in Smokers. SEIKATSU EISEI (Journal of Urban Living and Health Association). Vol. 55 (2011) , No. 1 p.59-64.

Polosa R, Caponnetto P, Morjaria J B, Papale G, Campagna D, Russo C: Effect of an Electronic Nicotine Delivery Device (e-Cigarette) on Smoking Reduction and Cessation: A Prospective 6-Month Pilot Study. BMC Public Health 2011, 11:786.

Rodu B. The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011. Harm Reduct J. 2011 Jul 29;8:19.

Rose JE, Turner JE, Murugesan T, Behm FM. Pulmonary delivery of nicotine pyruvate: sensory and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Poster, Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 16th annual conference, Baltimore, 27 February 2010.

Vansickel AR, Cobb CO, Weaver MF, Eissenberg TE. A clinical laboratory model for evaluating the acute effects of electronic "cigarettes": nicotine delivery profile and cardiovascular and subjective effects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Aug;19(8):1945-53. Epub 2010 Jul 20.

Vansickel AR, Eissenberg T. Electronic cigarettes: effective nicotine delivery after acute administration. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jan;15(1):267-70. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntr316. Epub 2012 Feb 6.

Vansickel AR, Weaver MF, Eissenberg T. Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette. Addiction. 2012 Jan 9.

Vardavas CI, Anagnostopoulos N, Kougias M, Evangelopoulou V, Connolly GN, Behrakis PK. Acute pulmonary effects of using an e-cigarette: impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance and exhaled nitric oxide. Chest. 2011 Dec 22.

Investigación de Laboratorio

Jan Czogala, Maciej L. Goniewicz, Bartlomiej Fidelus, Wioleta Zielinska-Danch, Mark J. Travers and Andrzej Sobczak. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes Nicotine Tob Res (2013) doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntt203 First published online: December 11, 2013.

T. R. McAuley, P. K. Hopke, J. Zhao, S. Babaian. Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality. October 2012, Vol. 24, No. 12 , Pages 850-857 (doi:10.3109/08958378.2012.724728).

Reportes de Laboratorio

Burstyn, I, Peering through the mist: What does the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tell us about health risks?, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health School of Public Health Drexel University, 2013 July-Aug. [Leer]

Comparison of vapor components to cigarette smoke toxicants [Leer]

Literature Review for Glycerol and Glycols for Entertainment Services & Technology Association [Leer]

NJoy Study of TSNAs in Njoy Electronic Cigarette Vapor [Leer]

Analysis of Components from Gamucci Electronic Cigarette Cartridges, Tobacco Flavour Regular Smoking Liquid. Report Number: E98D. LPD Laboratory Services. Blackburn MicroTech Solutions Ltd. [Leer]

Totally Wicked E-Liquid, Scientific Analysis Laboratories [Leer]

Characterization of Liquid "Smoke Juice" for Electronic Cigarettes prepared for Johnson Creek Enterprises by Alliance Technologies, LLC [Leer]

Safety Report on the Ruyan e-cigarette Cartridge and Inhaled Aerosol, Murray Laugesen, Health New Zealand Ltd [Leer]

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of vapor from Liberty Stix cartridge by Evans Analytical Group. [Leer]

Characterization of Regal Cartridges for Electronic Cigarettes, prepared for inLife LLC by Alliance Technologies [Leer]

Characterization of Regal Cartridges for Electronic Cigarettes Phase II, prepared for inLife LLC by Alliance Technologies [Leer]

Technical Review and Analysis of FDA Report: "Evaluation of e-cigarettes", Exponent Health Sciences Response to the FDA Summary [Leer]

FDA Final Report "Evaluation of e-cigarettes" [Leer]

CDC Report - Safety of Theatrical Fog: CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) report on the safety of "fog" used in theatrical productions. [Leer]

Opinión Científica

Burstyn, I, Peering through the mist: What does the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tell us about health risks?, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health School of Public Health Drexel University, 2013 July-Aug.

Ayers JW, Ribisl KM, Brownstein JS. Tracking the rise in popularity of electronic nicotine delivery systems (electronic cigarettes) using search query surveillance. Am J Prev Med. 2011 Apr;40(4):448-53.

Bauld L. Commentary on Wagener et al. (2012): E-cigarettes: room for cautious optimism. Addiction. 17 May 2012. (accessed July 2012)

Borland R. Electronic cigarettes as a method of tobacco control. BMJ. 2011 Sep 30;343:d6269.

Caldwell B, Sumner W, Crane J. A Systematic Review of Nicotine by Inhalation: Is There a Role for the Inhaled Route? Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2012.

Caponnetto P, Campagna D, Papale G, Russo C, Polosa R. The emerging phenomenon of electronic cigarettes. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2012 Feb;6(1):63-74.

Cobb NK, Byron MJ, Abrams DB, Shields PG. Novel Nicotine Delivery Systems and Public Health: The Rise of the "E-Cigarette" (Editorial). American Journal of Public Health 2340-2342.

Cobb NK, Abrams DB. Commentary onWagener et al. (2012): Laissez-faire regulation: turning back the clock on the Food and Drug Administration and public health. Addiction. 17 May 2012. (accessed July 2012)

Etter JF. Commentary on Wagener et al. (2012): Electronic cigarettes – the Holy Grail of nicotine replacement? Addiction. 17 May 2012. (accessed July 2012)

Etter JF, Bullen C. Saliva cotinine levels in users of electronic cigarettes. Eur Respir J. 38(5):1219-20. (accessed July 2012)

Etter JF, Bullen C, Flouris AD, Laugesen M, Eissenberg T. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda. Tob Control. 2011 May;20(3):243-8. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Flouris AD, Oikonomou DN. Electronic cigarettes: miracle or menace? BMJ. 2010 Jan 19;340:c311

Foulds J, Veldheer S. Commentary on Etter & Bullen (2011): Could E-cigs become the ultimate nicotine maintenance device? Addiction, 106: 2029–2030.

Hajek P. Commentary on Wagener et al. (2012): E-cigarettes: a vulnerable promise. Addiction. 17 May 2012. (accessed July 2012)

Laugesen M. 2010. Nicotine electronic cigarette sales are permitted under the Smokefree Environments Act. N Z Med J. 123(1308):103-5.

McCauley L, Markin C, Hosmer D. An unexpected consequence of electronic cigarette use. Chest. 2012;141(4):1110 –3.

McMillen R, Maduka J, Winickoff J. Use of Emerging Tobacco Products in the United States. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2012; 2012:8.

Noel JK, Rees VW, Connolly GN. Electronic cigarettes: a new 'tobacco' industry? Tob Control. 2011 Jan;20(1):81. Epub 2010 Oct 7.

Odum LE, O'Dell KA, Schepers JS. Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation? J Pharm Pract. 2012 Dec;25(6):611-4. doi: 10.1177/0897190012451909. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Smoking Everywhere, Inc., and Sottera, Inc. v. U.S. Food and Drug Administration et al. Memorandum Opinion by Judge Leon (p5) 2010 January 14. 2010; 09- 771. Available at: (accessed 14 July 2011; archived by Webcite at

Wagener TL, Siegel M, Borrelli B. Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective. Addiction. 2012 Sep;107(9):1545-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03826.x. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Wagener TL, Siegel M, Borrelli B. Let's keep our 'eye on the ball': reducing tobacco-related harm. Addiction. 2012 Sep;107(9):1554-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04012.x.

Wollscheid KA, Kremzner M. Electronic cigarettes: Safety concerns and regulatory issues. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009 Oct 1;66(19):1740-2.

Yamin CK, Bitton A, Bates DW. E-Cigarettes: A Rapidly Growing Internet Phenomenon. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010; 153:607-W207.

Esta lista se irá actualizando conforme se den a conocer más estudios.

Si conocen algún estudio que no esté incluido en esta lista, por favor déjenlo en los comentarios.